segunda-feira, 22 de janeiro de 2018

20 misused English words that make smart people look silly

Have a look to see which of these commonly confused words throw you off.

Accept vs. Except

These two words sound similar but have very different meanings. Accept means to receive something willingly: “His mom accepted his explanation” or “She accepted the gift graciously.” Except signifies exclusion: “I can attend every meeting except the one next week.” To help you remember, note that both except and exclusion begin with ex.

Affect vs. Effect

To make these words even more confusing than they already are, both can be used as either a noun or a verb. Let’s start with the verbs. Affect means to influence something or someone; effect means to accomplish something. “Your job was affected by the organizational restructuring” but “These changes will be effected on Monday.” As a noun, an effect is the result of something: “The sunny weather had a huge effect on sales.” It’s almost always the right choice because the noun affect refers to an emotional state and is rarely used outside of psychological circles: “The patient’s affect was flat.”

Lie vs. Lay

We’re all pretty clear on the lie that means an untruth. It’s the other usage that trips us up. Lie also means to recline: “Why don’t you lie down and rest?” Lay requires an object: “Lay the book on the table.” Lie is something you can do by yourself, but you need an object to lay. It’s more confusing in the past tense. The past tense of lie is—you guessed it—lay: “I lay down for an hour last night.” And the past tense of lay is laid: “I laid the book on the table.”

Bring vs. Take

Bring and take both describe transporting something or someone from one place to another, but the correct usage depends on the speaker’s point of view. Somebody brings something to you, but you take it to somewhere else: “Bring me the mail, then take your shoes to your room.” Just remember, if the movement is toward you, use bring; if the movement is away from you, use take.

Ironic vs. Coincidental

A lot of people get this wrong. If you break your leg the day before a ski trip, that’s not ironic—it’s coincidental (and bad luck). Ironic has several meanings, all of which include some type of reversal of what was expected. Verbal irony is when a person says one thing but clearly means another. Situational irony is when a result is the opposite of what was expected. O. Henry was a master of situational irony. In his famous short story The Gift of the Magi, Jim sells his watch to buy combs for his wife’s hair, and she sells her hair to buy a chain for Jim’s watch. Each character sold something precious to buy a gift for the other, but those gifts were intended for what the other person sold. That is true irony. If you break your leg the day before a ski trip, that’s coincidental. If you drive up to the mountains to ski, and there was more snow back at your house, that’s ironic.

Imply vs. Infer

To imply means to suggest something without saying it outright. To infer means to draw a conclusion from what someone else implies. As a general rule, the speaker/writer implies, and the listener/reader infers.

Nauseous vs. Nauseated

Nauseous has been misused so often that the incorrect usage is accepted in some circles. Still, it’s important to note the difference. Nauseous means causing nausea; nauseated means experiencing nausea. So, if your circle includes ultra-particular grammar sticklers, never say “I’m nauseous” unless you want them to be snickering behind your back.

Comprise vs. Compose

These are two of the most commonly misused words in the English language.Comprise means to include; compose means to make up. It all comes down to parts versus the whole. When you use comprise, you put the whole first: “A soccer game comprises (includes) two halves.” When you use compose, you put the pieces first: “Fifty states compose (make up) the United States of America.”

Farther vs. Further

Farther refers to physical distance, while further describes the degree or extent of an action or situation. “I can’t run any farther,” but “I have nothing further to say.” If you can substitute “more” or “additional,” use further.

Fewer vs. Less

Use fewer when you’re referring to separate items that can be counted; use less when referring to a whole: “You have fewer dollars, but less money.”

Bringing it all together

English grammar can be tricky, and, a lot of times, the words that sound right are actually wrong. With words such as those listed above, you just have to memorize the rules so that when you are about to use them, you’ll catch yourself in the act and know for certain that you’ve written or said the right one.

domingo, 21 de janeiro de 2018

Listening comprehension - weather


A: It's an ugly day today.

B: I know. I think it may rain.

A: It's the middle of summer, it shouldn't rain today.

B: That would be weird.

A: Yeah, especially since it's ninety degrees outside.

B: I know, it would be horrible if it rained and it was hot outside.

A: Yes, it would be. 

B: I really wish it wasn't so hot every day. 

A: Me too. I can't wait until winter.

B: I like winter too, but sometimes it gets too cold.

A: I'd rather be cold than hot.

B: Me too.


A: It doesn't look very nice outside today.

B: You're right. I think it's going to rain later.

A: In the middle of the summer, it shouldn't be raining.

B: That wouldn't seem right.

A: Considering that it's over ninety degrees outside, that would be weird.

B: Exactly, it wouldn't be nice if it started raining. It's too hot.

A: I know, you're absolutely right.

B: I wish it would cool off one day.

A: That's how I feel, I want winter to come soon.

B: I enjoy the winter, but it gets really cold sometimes.

A: I know what you mean, but I'd rather be cold than hot.

B: That's exactly how I feel.


A: I wish it was a nicer day today.

B: That is true. I hope it doesn't rain.

A: It wouldn't rain in the middle of the summer.

B: It wouldn't seem right if it started raining right now.

A: It would be weird if it started raining in ninety degree weather.

B: Any rain right now would be pointless.

A: That's right, it really would be.

B: I want it to cool down some.

A: I know what you mean, I can't wait until it's winter.

B: Winter is great. I wish it didn't get so cold sometimes though.

A: I would rather deal with the winter than the summer.

B: I feel the same way.


A: It's such a nice day.

B: Yes, it is.

A: It looks like it may rain soon.

B: Yes, and I hope that it does.

A: Why is that?

B: I really love how rain clears the air.

A: Me too. It always smells so fresh after it rains.

B: Yes, but I love the night air after it rains.

A: Really? Why is it?

B: Because you can see the stars perfectly.

A: I really hope it rains today.

B: Yeah, me too.



A: Isn't it a nice day?

B: It really is.

A: It seems that it may rain today.

B: Hopefully it will.

A: How come?

B: I like how clear the sky gets after it rains.

A: I feel the same way. It smells so good after it rains.

B: I especially love the night air when it rains.

A: Really? Why?

B: The stars look so much closer after it rains.

A: I really want it to rain today.

B: Yeah, so do I.



A: Don't you think it's nice out?

B: Yes, I think so too.

A: I think that it's going to rain.

B: I hope that it does rain.

A: You like the rain?

B: The sky looks so clean after it rains. I love it.

A: I understand. Rain does make it smell cleaner.

B: I love most how it is at night after it rains.

A: How come?

B: You can see the stars so much more clearly after it rains.

A: I would love for it to rain today.

B: I would too.


A: I really want to go to the beach this weekend.

B: That sounds like fun. What's the weather going to be like?

A: I heard that it's going to be warm this weekend.

B: Is it going to be perfect beach weather?

A: I believe so.

B: Good. I hope it doesn't cool off this weekend.

A: I know. I really want to go to the beach.

B: But you know that California weather is really unpredictable.

A: You're right. One minute it's hot, and then the next minute it's cold.

B: I really wish the weather would just stay the same.

A: I do too. That way we can have our activities planned ahead of time.

B: Yeah, that would make things a lot easier.



A: I would like to take a trip to the beach this weekend.

B: A trip to the beach would be fun. How is the weather going to be?

A: The forecast says that it will be warm on the weekend.

B: So do you think it'll be perfect weather for the beach?

A: It sounds like it will be.

B: I really hope it doesn't get cold.

A: That would ruin things, I want to go so badly.

B: The weather in California is unpredictable, so you never know.

A: That is true. The weather is constantly changing.

B: It would be nice if the weather would never change.

A: That would be great, then we could plan things sooner.

B: True. Predictable weather would make life easier.



A: It would be nice to go to the beach sometime this weekend.

B: What's the weather going to be like? I may want to go too.

A: The weather this weekend is supposed to be warm.

B: Will it be good beach weather?

A: I think it will be.

B: It wouldn't be good if it got cold this weekend.

A: I want this trip to be perfect, I hope it stays warm.

B: This California weather is so uncertain, it's impossible to know what'll happen.

A: I know. Every day the weather seems different.

B: I would love it if it wasn't always so unpredictable.

A: That would make it easier for us to make plans.

B: I know. Things are easier when you know what the weather's going to be like.

quarta-feira, 17 de janeiro de 2018

«The Count of Montecristo» - Infographic & Plot Summary

In 1815 the future looks bright for Edmond Dantès, a dashing young first mate, when he sails the cargo ship Pharaon into the harbor of Marseille. He's done such a good job as acting captain after the unexpected death of Captain Leclère that the ship's owner, Monsieur Morrel, plans to appoint Dantès captain before his next voyage. Dantès has three months ashore before then to spend time with his aged father and marry his fiancée, Mercédès. Dantès is in danger unknown to him, however. Three men who hate him for different reasons meet and conspire against him. The three are Danglars, Morrel's business agent during the Pharaon's voyage, who is envious of Dantès's youth and success; Fernand Mondego, a fisherman in love with Mercédès; and Gaspard Caderousse, Dantès's neighbor who also envies the young man's success. Dantès and Mercédès hold their betrothal celebration the very next day, with the marriage ceremony to take place less than two hours later. But as the betrothal dinner ends, Dantès is arrested and taken away to prison.
The commissioner of police has received an anonymous letter accusing Dantès of being involved in a Bonapartist plot to overthrow the government. Dantès admits he'd innocently agreed to take a letter to Paris for the dying Captain Leclère. Unknown to him, that letter contained plans for a conspiracy. Monsieur de Villefort, the crown prosecutor's deputy, interrogates Dantès and believes in his innocence. But the letter poses a problem for Villefort because it is addressed to his own father. Villefort's ambition to rise in the government will be jeopardized if it becomes known that he has a traitor in his family. Villefort decides to burn the incriminating conspiracy letter, and arranges for Dantès to be sent to the Château d'If, a prison on an island off Marseille where political prisoners are sent to disappear.
Dantès spends 14 years in the dungeon of Château d'If. His aged father, his fiancée, and his friends are unable to find out what has happened to him. In the prison, he is befriended by Abbé Faría, a political prisoner. The prison guards think the abbé is insane because he's obsessed with a treasure that he says has been left to him. He claims it's hidden in a place that only he knows. Faría and Dantès use a secret tunnel they've dug through the wall to visit each other's cells. The abbé doesn't seem at all insane to Dantès; in fact, he's an incredibly learned man. He passes along his vast store of knowledge to Dantès, providing the younger man with a first-rate education in all subject areas. The abbé also helps Dantès figure out who was behind the anonymous letter that led to his arrest. Shocked to have been betrayed, Dantès vows to seek vengeance if he and the abbé succeed in carrying out their planned escape. But the abbé has a stroke and dies after telling Dantès where to find the treasure. Dantès suddenly thinks of a daring way out of the prison. He puts the abbé's body in his own cell, then he goes into Faría's cell and hides in the abbé's shroud. The guards throw the body that they think is the abbé's into the sea, and Dantès thus escapes. He is rescued from the sea by Italian smugglers and works with them for a time before searching for and finding the abbé's treasure on the island of Monte Cristo.
Once he has the treasure, Dantès begins to lay the groundwork for his plan of vengeance. He goes in disguise to Marseille, where he learns that his father died of grief and starvation not long after Dantès's arrest. Mercédès, after waiting a year and a half in hopes that Dantès would return, gives in to Fernand's persistent attention and agrees to marry him. Dantès also learns that Caderousse is now an innkeeper on the outskirts of Marseille, and that Fernand, Danglars, and Villefort have achieved wealth and power and are all living in Paris. Before departing, Dantès helps the faithful and kind Morrel family who have fallen on hard times. He also gives a diamond to Caderousse, who relates much of this information and expresses his regret in taking part in the plot against Dantès.
Ten years later, Dantès emerges in Rome, having reinvented himself as the fabulously wealthy and eccentric Count of Monte Cristo. He's been traveling in Asia and developed a vast network of contacts in the world of smugglers and bandits. He now owns the island of Monte Cristo, where he's created an exotic, hidden, underground home, and he has a staff of loyal, trusted attendants, most of whom have checkered pasts. The count saves Albert de Morcerf, son of Mercédès and Fernand Mondego, from bandits. In return, Albert befriends the count and introduces him to the upper crust of Parisian society. No one suspects that the count is Dantès, and he uses this hidden information to become a part of the lives of all who betrayed him.
Driven by the conviction that he is acting as the agent of Providence, Monte Cristo, as he is now known, sets out to punish his enemies. Fernand, after rising to the rank of general in the army, has become Comte de Morcerf; Villefort is now a deputy minister in the government; and Danglars is now Baron Danglars, a millionaire banker. Morcerf has not made his fortune by noble means. He betrayed his former patron, Ali Pasha, a Greek vizier whose daughter, Haydée, Dantès saved from the slavery Morcerf sold her and her mother into after her father died. The count extracts his revenge very slowly. A journalist publishes a story revealing Morcerf's treachery, and Haydée testifies against Morcerf to a government tribunal. Disgraced, he commits suicide while Albert and Mercédès flee in shame. To avenge himself on Villefort, the count first plays on the social ambitions, greed, and murderous mind of Madame de Villefort. He teachers her how to use poison and watches as she kills each member of the household. These events—plus the revelation that Villefort tried to bury alive his illegitimate child years before—drive Villefort insane. The count uses Danglar's family and various fake business accounts to leave him alive but broke and alone.
Monte Cristo gets some respite from the dealings with his betrayers by spending time with Maximilien Morrel, his sister Julie, and her husband Emmanuel. He becomes particularly close to Maximilien and helps save the life of Maximilien's fiancée, Valentine (Villefort's daughter) when her stepmother tries to poison her. When his vengeance is complete, he helps Maximilien and Valentine start a new life, leaving them a fortune. He starts a new life of his own, sailing off with Haydée.
The Count of Monte Cristo Plot Diagram
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segunda-feira, 15 de janeiro de 2018

Meaning of the word «dox»

Origin of doxDox is an alteration of docs, which is short for documents. It’s been used since around 2000.
Citations for dox«Hackers and online vigilantes routinely "dox" both public and private figures who provoke their ire, by publishing social security numbers, home addresses, and credit card numbers.»Sam Gustin, "The Internet Doesn't Hurt People--People Do: 'The New Digital Age,'" Time, April 26, 2013
«Apparently, one of his online enemies had doxed him.»Jason Fagone, "The Serial Swatter," New York Times, November 24, 2015

sábado, 13 de janeiro de 2018

British and American English – Vocabulary Lists

British EnglishAmerican English
acceleratorgas pedal, accelerator
aerial (TV, radio)antenna, aerial
AlsatianGerman shepherd
American IndianNative American
anorakjacket, parka
at the weekendon the weekend
bank holidaynational holiday, federal holiday
barrister, solicitorlawyer, attorney
base rateprime rate
to bathto bathe
bin, dustbingarbage can/trash can
biroball-point pen
(round) bracketsparentheses
candy flosscotton candy
car parkparking lot
chemist's shopdrugstore, pharmacy
chipsFrench fries
city centredowntown, city center
cloakroomcheckroom, coatroom
clothes pegclothespin
(bathing) costumeswimsuit
cot (Baby)crib
cotton woolcotton ball
crispspotato chips
crossroadscrossroad (in the country)
intersection (town and country)
curriculum vitae (CV)résumé
curriculum vitae
dinner jackettux, tuxedo
directory enquiriesdirectory assistance
double creamheavy cream
drawing pinthumb tack
dressing gown(bath) robe
drink drivingdrunk driving
driving licencedriver's license
earth wireground wire
everywhereeveryplace, everywhere
expiry dateexpiration date
fancy dresscostumes
Father ChristmasSanta Claus
to fill into fill out
filmfilm, movie
fire brigadefire department
first floorsecond floor
flannelface cloth, wash cloth
(flat: eingeschossige Wohnung)
fortnighttwo weeks
from Monday to Fridayfrom Monday to Friday
from Monday through Friday (Freitag eingeschlossen)
full stopperiod
gear levergear shift
GentsMen's Room
goods trainfreight train
ground floorground floor, first floor
first floorsecond floor
headmaster, headteacherprincipal
to hireto rent
hire purchaseinstallment plan
hockeyfield hockey
hoovervacuum cleaner
icing sugarpowdered sugar
indicatorblinker, turn signal
inverted commas, quotation marksquotation marks
jacket potatobaked potato
Joe BloggsJohn Doe
jumble saleyard sale
to lay the tableto set the table
letter boxmail box
lost propertylost and found
managing directorCEO (chief executive officer)
mashed potatomashed potatoes
mobile (phone)cellphone
motorwayfreeway, highway, expressway, interstate
national insurance numbersocial security number
notice boardbulletin board
number platelicense plate
a pack of cardsa deck of cards
a packet of cigarettesa pack of cigarettes
pedestrian crossingcrosswalk
pepperbell pepper
phone boxphone booth
polo neckturtle neck
post codezip code
pram, pushchairbaby carriage, baby buggy, stoller
primary schoolelementary school
grade school
to queueto line up
receptionfront desk
to ringto call
road waypavement
roundabouttraffic circle, rotary
shop assistantsales clerk
single ticketone-way ticket
Sorry.Excuse me.
sports dayfields day
public schoolprivate school
sweet shopcandy store
toilet, loobathroom, rest room
town centredowntown, city center
underground, tubesubway
underlaycarpet pad
to washwash up
zebra crossingcrosswalk