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Sunday, 18 March 2018

The Weather - vocabulary

The Weather

The condition of the atmosphere over a particular area is called the weather.
The Weather


Rain: drops of water that fall from clouds. A single drop of rain is called a raindrop. The total amount of rain is calledrainfall. Rain can include:
  • Deluge: a sudden large amount of rain
  • Downpour: a heavy rain in a short time
  • Drizzle: a rain that falls in light drops
  • Hail: balls of ice that fall from the sky. Each of the balls of ice is called a hailstone.
  • Shower: a short period of rain
  • Sleet: partly frozen falling rain
  • Monsoon: heavy rain that falls in S Asia in the summer
  • Snow: soft, white pieces (called snowflake) of water ice that falls from clouds.

Rain can cause:
  • Flood: a large amount of water covering land which is usually dry.
  • Puddle: a small amount of water on the ground


A natural movement of air as a result of atmospheric pressure is call wind. Wind can include:
  • Breeze: a light and gentle wind
  • Crosswind: a wind that is blowing across the direction of travel of a person or vehicle
  • Easterly: a wind that is blowing from the east
  • Northerly: a wind that is blowing from the north
  • Gale: a very strong wind
  • Gust: a sudden blast of wind
  • Headwind: a wind that is blowing against the direction of travel of a vehicle
  • Tailwind: a wind that is blowing in the same direction of travel of a vehicle
  • Sirocco: a hot wind that comes from the Sahara Desert to southern Europe


A severe weather condition with strong wind, heavy rain, thunder, and lightning is called storm. Storm can include:
  • Blizzard: a severe snowstorm
  • Cyclone: a powerful tropical storm rotating in a circular direction
  • Hurricane: a rapidly rotating storm, that occurs especially in the West Atlantic Ocean
  • Thunderstorm: a storm with thunder and lightning and sometimes heavy rain and strong winds
  • Tornado (twister): a dangerous spinning cone-shape column of air

Difference between tornado and twister

The term used by meteorologists
Slang for tornado

  • Typhoon: a tropical cyclone that occurs especially in the West Pacific Ocean


The area above the surface of the Earth is called the sky. The sky can include:
  • The Sun: the star that gives the earth heat and light. 
  • Cloud: a grey or white mass of water in the sky. 
  • Fog: water droplets that form a thick cloud in the air above the land or the sea, reducing visibility.
  • Mist: thin fog that occurs when humid air cools rapidly.
  • Rainbow: a multicolored arch appearing in the sky when the sun shines through rain

Adjectives that describe the weather

  • Rainy: with a lot of rain
  • Warm: with comfortably high temperature; not hot or cold
  • Cold: with a very low temperature
  • Cloudy: with a lot of cloud
  • Clear: without cloud
  • Sunny: with a lot of sunlight
  • Stormy: with strong wind, heavy rain, thunder, and lightning
  • Misty: with a lot of mist
  • Foggy: with a lot of fog
  • Breezy: with strong winds
  • Windy: with a lot of wind
  • Showery: with light rain
  • Frosty: cold with frost
  • Chilly: too cold
  • Snowy: with a lot of snow
  • Icy: extremely cold; covered with ice
  • Drizzly: with light rain
  • Dry: without moisture
  • Overcast: with a lot of clouds
  • Wet: covered with water

Sentence examples:

The sun is shining.
The wind is blowing.
The rain is falling
It’s thundering.
It’s a foggy day.

Saturday, 17 March 2018

Prince William and The Duchess of Cambridge celebrate St. Patrick's day

The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge are braving ferocious winds and chilly conditions to celebrate St Patrick's Day today by attending a parade of the Irish Guards.
Prince William, who is Colonel of the Irish Guards, and the Duchess are visiting the 1st Battalion at their base in Hounslow, west London.
They watched 350 soldiers arrive on the Parade Square before presenting traditional shamrocks to officers and guardsmen.

St. Patrick's Day | Shaun the Sheep - River Dance video

Shaun and the flock pay tribute to the River Dance in this short clip made for TV!


English ST. PATRICK'S DAY Words - video with subtitles

Friday, 16 March 2018

Thursday, 15 March 2018

Listening comprehension - calling a friend


A: Hello, may I speak to Alice please?

B: This is she. How's it going?

A: I've been trying to call you all day.

B: Sorry about that. I was cleaning up.

A: It's okay.

B: So what were you calling me about?

A: Oh, I just wanted to see if you wanted to hang out tomorrow.

B: Sure, what did you want to do?

A: Maybe we can go see a movie or something.

B: That sounds like fun. Let's do it.

A: I'll see you tomorrow then.

B: See you then. Goodbye.


A: Hi, how are you. Is Alice there?

B: Speaking. What's up?

A: Why haven't you answered the phone?

B: My bad, I had chores to do.

A: That's all right.

B: What was the reason for your call?

A: I want to do something tomorrow with you.

B: Sounds good. What did you have in mind?

A: I was thinking about seeing a movie.

B: Okay, let's go see a movie.

A: Until then.

B: Talk to you later.


A: Is Alice available?

B: You're talking to her.

A: I've called you a hundred times today.

B: I was busy doing something. I apologize.

A: No problem.

B: Did you need something?

A: Do you want to do something tomorrow?

B: Is there somewhere special you wanted to go?

A: How about a movie?

B: A movie sounds good.

A: Call me tomorrow then.

B: I will see you tomorrow.

Wednesday, 14 March 2018

World in mourning after the death of Stephen Hawking - videos and information

Astrophysicist Professor Stephen Hawking has died at the age of 76.
Prof Hawking passed away peacefully at his home in Cambridge in the early hours of this morning.
Tributes have already begin pouring in to the great man, known for his work on black holes and relativity, and popular science books including A Brief History of Time.
In a statement his children, Lucy, Robert and Tim, said: "We are deeply saddened that our beloved father passed away today.
"He was a great scientist and an extraordinary man whose work and legacy will live on for many years."
Prof Stephen Toope, vice-chancellor of Cambridge University, paid tribute, saying: "Professor Hawking was a unique individual who will be remembered with warmth and affection not only in Cambridge but all over the world.
"His exceptional contributions to scientific knowledge and the popularisation of science and mathematics have left an indelible legacy. His character was an inspiration to millions. He will be much missed.”

A man of great humour, he became a popular ambassador for science and was always careful to ensure that the general public had ready access to his work.

His book A Brief History of Time became an unlikely best-seller although it is unclear how many people actually managed to get to the end of it.
He appeared in a number of popular TV shows and lent his synthesised voice to various recordings.
Stephen William Hawking was born in Oxford on 8 January 1942. His father, a research biologist, had moved with his mother from London to escape German bombing.
Hawking grew up in London and St Albans and, after gaining a first-class degree in physics from Oxford, went on to Cambridge for postgraduate research in cosmology.
As a teenager he had enjoyed horse-riding and rowing but while at Cambridge he was diagnosed with a form of motor neurone disease which was to leave him almost completely paralysed.
As he was preparing to marry his first wife, Jane, in 1964 his doctors gave him no more than two or three years of life.
But the disease progressed more slowly than expected. The couple had three children, and in 1988 - although Hawking was by now only able to speak with a voice synthesiser following a tracheotomy - he had completed A Brief History of Time - a layman's guide to cosmology.
It sold more than 10 million copies, although its author was aware that it was dubbed "the most popular book never read".
He received honorary degrees, medals, prizes and awards throughout his career and was honoured with a CBE in 1982. He was reportedly offered a knighthood in the 1990s but later revealed he had turned it down over issues with the government's funding for science.
Hawking discovered the phenomenon which became known as Hawking radiation, where black holes leak energy and fade to nothing. He was renowned for his extraordinary capacity to visualise scientific solutions without calculation or experiment.
But it was perhaps his "theory of everything", suggesting that the universe evolves according to well-defined laws, that attracted most attention.
"This complete set of laws can give us the answers to questions like how did the universe begin," he said. "Where is it going and will it have an end? If so, how will it end? If we find the answers to these questions, we really shall know the mind of God."
Hawking's celebrity status was acknowledged even by The Simpsons - he was depicted drinking at a bar with Homer, suggesting he might steal Homer's idea that the universe is shaped like a doughnut.
He appeared in a special documentary about BBC comedy series Red Dwarf during which he spoke about why he enjoyed the show and also starred in Star Trek: The Next Generation as a hologram of his image.
The rock group Pink Floyd used his distinctive synthesised voice for the introduction to Keep Talking, on their 1994 album The Division Bell.
Undeterred by his condition, he continued his work as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University, and in 2001, his second book - Universe in a Nutshell - was published.
In 2014, the film The Theory of Everything was released, based on Jane Hawking's account of their courtship and marriage. Hawking himself met Eddie Redmayne as part of the actor's preparation for taking on the role of the scientist.
In a series for the Discovery Channel, he said it was perfectly rational to assume there was intelligent life elsewhere but warned that aliens might just raid earth of its resources and then move on.
Hawking also predicted the end of humanity from global warming, a large comet or a new virus.
He collaborated with Russian investor Yuri Milner in 2015 to work on projects to find evidence of alien life.
He once wrote that he had motor neurone disease for practically all his adult life but said that it had not stopped him having an attractive family and being successful in his work.
"It shows," he said, "that one need not lose hope."